“Innovation is the key to the future, but basic research is the key to future innovation.”

Jerome Isaac Friedman
“Although more research is needed on the relationship between immersion and self-efficacy, the positive effect found in Experiment 1, indicates that IVR can potentially enhance self-efficacy in science learning among middle-school girls. Notably, in Experiment 2, watching IVR videos showed a positive effect on a higher cognitive level of learning, knowledge creation, compared to using a computer monitor”

Queiroz, A. C. M., Fauville, G., Herrera, F., Leme, M. I. da S., & J. N. Bailenson. (2022). Do Students Learn Better With Immersive Virtual Reality Videos Than Conventional Videos? A Comparison of Media Effects With Middle School Girls. Technology, Mind, and Behavior, 3(3).

“The results revealed that using mixed reality (augmented reality and virtual reality) as a learning supplement to the printed book could improve students’ learning outcomes, particularly for low spatial ability students.”

Weng, C., Rathinasabapathi, A., Weng, A., & C. Zagita. (2019). Mixed Reality in Science Education as a Learning Support: A Revitalized Science Book. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 57(3): 777–807.

“The experimental group engaged with the science lessons using Head-Mounted Displays, whereas the control group learned the same material through traditional teaching methods. The results revealed that the experimental group obtained significantly higher academic achievement and engagement scores (cognitive, behavioral, emotional and social) than the control group. Moreover, the experimental group had a high level of technology acceptance for IVR usage in classrooms.”

Liu, R., Wang, L., Lei, J., Wang, Q., & Y. Ren. (2020). Effects of an Immersive Virtual Reality-based Classroom on Students’ Learning Performance in Science Lessons. British Journal of Educational Technology, 51: 2034-2049.

“Few methods exist for training nursing students in difficult airway management. This study presents a virtual reality (VR) intervention for teaching students these skills. The intervention was widely accepted by students and faculty, showed a high level of virtual presence, no cybersickness, and statistically and practically significant knowledge gains.”

Samosorn, A., Gilbert, G., Bauman, E., Khine, J., & D. McGonigle. (2020). Teaching Airway Insertion Skills to Nursing Faculty and Students Using Virtual Reality: A Pilot Study. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 39: 18-26.

“We found evidence suggesting that VR improves postintervention knowledge and skills outcomes of health professionals when compared with traditional education or other types of digital education such as online or offline digital education.”

Kyaw, B., Saxena, N., Posadzki, P., Vseteckova, J., Nikolaou, C., George, P., Divakar, U., Masiello, I., Kononowicz, A., Zary, N., & L. Tudor Car. (2019). Virtual Reality for Health Professions Education: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis by the Digital Health Education Collaboration. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 21(1): e12959.

“For this study, 99 participants were assigned to one of three learning conditions: traditional (textbook style), VR, and video (a passive control). Each participant was given a knowledge test before and after learning. Participants in the traditional and VR conditions had improved overall performance (i.e. learning, including knowledge acquisition and understanding) compared to those in the video condition.”

“Participants in the VR condition also showed better performance for ‘remembering’ than those in the traditional and the video conditions.”

“Emotion self-ratings before and after the learning phase showed an increase in positive emotions and a decrease in negative emotions for the VR condition. Conversely there was a decrease in positive emotions in both the traditional and video conditions.”

“We also found that participants in the VR condition reported higher engagement than those in the other conditions. Overall, VR displayed an improved learning experience when compared to traditional and video learning methods.”

Allcoat, D., & A. von Mühlenen. (2018). Learning in virtual reality: Effects on performance, emotion and engagement. Research in Learning Technology, 26.

“Virtual reality applications represent modern technology which can captivate students’ attention, involve them in solving problems and connect their experience with knowledge. The results from our research study showed increased motivation of students to learn and positive knowledge gain.”

Truchly, P., Medvecký, M., Podhradský, P., & M. Vančo. (2018). Virtual Reality Applications in STEM Education. 16th International Conference on Emerging eLearning Technologies and Applications (ICETA): 597-602.

“The score of the VR group in the Immediate Test is 93, and the traditional teaching group, 73, representing a gap of 27.4% between the two groups. VR helps students improve academic performance in subjects like astrophysics.”

“In the Retention Test, the average score of the VR group is 90, 32.4% more that of a traditional teaching group which is 68. These figures indicate that knowledge is more inclined to be forgotten in traditional teaching, while VR-based teaching could help students retain knowledge.”

Beijing Bluefocus E-Commerce Co., Ltd, & Beijing iBokan Wisdom Mobile Internet Technology Training Institutions. (2016). A Case Study – The Impact of VR on Academic Performance.

“The results showed the strong potential of VR serious games to improve student well-being during spells of confinement, due to higher learning satisfaction.”

“VR students showed significantly better academic performance than the group that received the traditional lecture. VR provides significant advantages compared to other methodologies for student absorption of visual knowledge, understanding and making connections between different concepts.”

Checa, D., Miguel-Alonso, I., & A. Bustillo. (2021). Immersive virtual-reality computer-assembly serious game to enhance autonomous learning. Virtual Reality.

“VR has positive cognitive and pedagogical benefits in engineering education, which ultimately improves the students’ understanding of the subjects, performance and grades, and education experience.”

“The benefits extend to the institution in terms of reduced liability, infrastructure, and cost through the use of VR as a replacement to physical laboratories.”

“There are added benefits of equal educational experience for the students with special needs as well as distance learning students who have no access to physical labs.”

Soliman, M., Pesyridis, A., Dalaymani-Zad, D., Gronfula, M., & M. Kourmpetis. (2021). The Application of Virtual Reality in Engineering Education. Applied Scences, 11: 2879.

“Comparisons between F2F and VR conversations yielded statistically significant findings indicating that VR can be a more fun way to practice speaking that can also reduce feelings of self-consciousness.”

Enkin, E. (2022). Comparing Two Worlds: Spanish Learners’ Face-to-face and Immersive Social VR Speaking Experiences. Computer Assisted Language Learning Electronic Journal, 23(1): 22-42.

“The application of VR to immersion-based English language teaching presents such an excellent effect on the quantity of students’ learning that they can learn more within the same learning time. The results showed that there is a significantly positive correlation between VR and immersion-based language teaching. There is a significantly positive correlation between immersion-based language teaching and academic achievement, and VR is positively correlated with learning outcome”

Xie, Y., Liu, Y., Zhang, F., & P. Zhou. (2022). Virtual Reality-integrated Immersion-based Teaching to English Language Learning Outcome. Frontiers in Psychology, 12: 767363.

“VR technologies thanks to their immersive and authentic/real-life environment have a lot to offer to a second language learner, e.g. development of learner autonomy, achievement of better learning results, increased retention of new knowledge and skills, or personalized approach to learning.”

Klimova, B. (2021). Use of Virtual Reality in Non-Native Language Learning and Teaching. Procedia Computer Science, 192: 1385-1392.

“A sample of 102 middle school students took a virtual field trip to Greenland via a head mounted display (HMD) or a 2D video as an introductory lesson within a 6-lesson inquiry-based climate change intervention. The HMD group scored significantly higher than the video group on presence, enjoyment, interest, and retention in an immediate and delayed posttest.”

Makransky, G., & R. Mayer. (2022). Benefits of Taking a Virtual Field Trip in Immersive Virtual Reality: Evidence for the Immersion Principle in Multimedia Learning. Educational Psychology Review, 34: 1771–1798.

“Evidence-based practices demonstrate that incorporating VR into therapy or training programs is effective in improving the social aspects of performances among individuals with ASD. Participants have shown remarkable improvement in social functioning, emotion recognition, and speech and language after VR-based intervention.”

“It has been well-documented that VR technology can offer considerable educational benefits for children and adolescents with special needs. The educational advantages brought by VR technologies could, therefore, contribute greatly to long-term support for the ASD population and would be illuminating for educators and policymakers working on special education services for children with ASD.”

Zhang, M., Ding, H., Naumceska, M., & Y. Zhang. (2022). Virtual Reality Technology as an Educational and Intervention Tool for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Current Perspectives and Future Directions. Behavioral Sciences, 12: 138.

“Virtual reality implementations could be a significant tool for individuals with different disabilities. This condition could create equal opportunities in learning environments.”

Yildirim, G., Elban, M., & S. Yildirim. (2018). Analysis of Use of Virtual Reality Technologies in History Education: A Case Study. Asian Journal of Education and Training, 4(2): 62-69.

“Students with special needs in mathematics lessons can be specifically supported through virtual reality (VR) if they are offered virtual learning environments that offer real benefits through their implementation in VR.”

“In addition to learning by doing, the visualization of mathematical facts in 3D for the training of imagination can offer added value in relation to the tasks themselves or that content can be experienced in class for which this is otherwise not simply possible.”

“The advantages of an immersive learning environment compared to classical teaching aids can be a positive effect on motivation, concentration and learning success.”

Keller, T., Hebeisen, A., & E. Brucker-Kley. (2018). Integration of Children with Special Needs in Mathematics through Virtual Reality. 15th International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age (CELDA).

“The most promising technologies for supporting the teaching of children with ASD are the technologies of augmented and virtual reality. Such technologies make it possible to create environments where students with ASD can study and re-perform various tasks in a comfortable communication environment.”

Andrunyk, V., Shestakevytch, T., & V. Pasichnyk. (2018). The technology of augmented and virtual reality in teaching children with ASD. ECONTECHMOD: An International Quarterly Journal on Economics of Technology and Modelling Processes, 7(4): 59 – 64.

“Virtual Reality has potential to contribute to the inclusion of students with intellectual disability in the educational context.”

de Vasconcelos, D.F.P., Júnior, E.A.L., de Oliveira Malaquias, F.F., Oliveira, L.A., & A. Cardoso. (2020). A Virtual Reality Based Serious Game to Aid in the Literacy of Students with Intellectual Disability: Design Principles and Evaluation. Technology and Disability, 32(3): 149-157.

“Virtual Reality (VR) can be viewed as an assistive technology, due to its potential to minimize or offset the effects of a disability and provide an alternative mean for an individual to accomplish a particular task. It is a promising avenue to provide children with Special Educational Needs (SENs) opportunities that they otherwise would never experience.”

“VR can provide a safe and supportive simulated environment that allows a child to practice or enhance various skills which can be transferred to the real world. VR encourages interactive learning and provides a variety of opportunities for the learner to have control over the learning process.”

Buzio, A., Chiesa, M., & R. Toppan. (2017). Virtual Reality for Special Education Needs. SmartLearn ’17: Proceedings of the 2017 ACM Workshop on Intelligent Interfaces for Ubiquitous and Smart Learning: 7-10.

“Virtual reality technology is an exciting tool that involves a safe and supportive environment to transfer knowledge between virtual and real worlds. Through such technology, individuals with special needs can look carefully at their own strengths, abilities, and learning preferences in comparison to the required learning task and expected learning outcome.”

Jeffs, T. (2009). Virtual Reality and Special Needs. Themes in Science and Technology Education, 2: 253-268.

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